EDTC 6433 Meta-Reflection

Technology Bookmarks

Figure 1: Teaching Technology Resources Bookmarks

P4 – Practice the integration of appropriate technology with instruction. This standard refers to the effective integration and use of technology in the classroom so that students become technologically proficient learners in a world of rapid growth. During the course of this class, we have discussed the five ISTE standards for teachers, their benefits, and possible issues with the standards. Learning ways to successfully integrate technology into my classroom has been highly beneficial to me as I begin to form my own educational practices and ideas.

During this course, I have discovered many resources that will be useful to me as I begin my first year in teaching. Figure 1 shows the many bookmarks I have created to organize my resources for future reference. As I continue to develop my educational practice, I refer to these bookmarks for ideas, networking, and learning of my own. Though I would not say that these bookmarks all prepare me for integrating technology into my classroom right from the start, I believe they are a good beginning to effectively including them, and I will continue to research and develop ideas throughout my career. While researching these resources, I began to understand that integrating technology into the classroom is more involved than I had thought prior to this course. Not only is it teaching students how to research information using the internet; it is also continually developing my practice as a teacher to be informed and connected, using my evolving knowledge to teach my students to become responsible and safe citizens in a globally networked society. By using these resources to increase my own knowledge and fluency with technology, I will be able to model use and benefits of being a modern and globally connected citizen for students. Beyond research, it will be absolutely imperative for me to begin connecting with these professional networks and communities, and continue to stay up-to-date with current trends in technology.

Digital Storytelling Project: Mount Saint Helens

For ISTE Standard 1, I created a digital storytelling project to see how I might use such a tool in class, either as a presentation or for an example project students might create. I chose Mount Saint Helens and its 1980 eruption as my topic because it is relevant to Washington State, a topic covered in the grade I wish to teach (4th). This video was created with the intention of being viewed by my class, though I believe anyone who is interested in getting a brief overview of the eruption would find it of value. In class, it could be used as in introduction to the topic of volcanoes, the Ring of Fire, or geology, and could be used within the classroom during direct instruction time, or could be viewed as “homework” in a kind of flipped classroom setting. This project serves also as a model for creative and innovative thinking with information, a model for knowledge construction, and a way for engaging students in real-world issues, all three of which fall under the ISTE 1 standard. This project was slightly frustrating for me to complete, which I feel was helpful for me to learn before assigning it to students without testing it first. I used Windows Movie Maker and an audio program called Reaper (which is similar to Audacity, but can layer tracks easier and has a more “professional” quality to it). I used my cell phone to record my voice, and found the content for my project through a variety of resources, such as the United States Geological Survey and various books. My music came from the Free Music Archive, a resource for free sound effects and music. Originally, I wanted to create a project on the history of computer programming, since at the time I was researching the topic for a STEM expo I worked at. However, much of the information I found was speculative or not relevant to my topic, and I didn’t feel that it would be as relevant to teaching 4th grade. While traveling near Mt. Saint Helens, I was researching some of its history, and thought it might make a better project, so I completely switched gears and started delving into the geology of Washington and the Pacific Ring of Fire. My biggest challenge was keeping the information I had short and relevant. I did not have enough space to include a Native American legend about the mountain (a very interesting one about Loowit and the great spirit Sahale, which I recommend reading about), and it was the piece I pulled away, as it was not relevant to the geology and causes of the mountain’s eruption. I also found the technological aspect a bit challenging. Audacity would not work correctly, so I asked around about programs that might be more effective. Movie Maker did not have all the features I wished for, and frustrated me by changing my settings for each slide, making the project more time-consuming. I feel that it was an important lesson for me to learn, however, and I will be sure to keep this in mind if I ever plan to use digital storytelling either for my own lessons or for projects for students to complete.  I also thought that having this as an option rather than a requirement made it a more fun and interesting project, since I was able to choose my own form for presenting the information I gathered. Overall, I found it a beneficial and rewarding project, however, and will likely use something similar (if not so complicated as I made it) during my teaching.

 

The Social Family of Models of Teaching

Albert Einstein once said that “the supreme art of the teacher is to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge,” a quote that I heard years ago and is still with me today. As I begin to form my instructional practices, I am finding that awakening joy in students can be both very challenging and also very rewarding. As a future elementary teacher, it is especially important that I foster a comfortable and encouraging classroom that is connected to communities within and without the classroom. HOPE standard H3 deals with this, stating that teacher candidates “honor the classroom and school community as a milieu for learning”. Part of this standard is ensuring students have the knowledge and skills for working with others. In a world of such rapid change, students need to have the skills to gather as much information as possible, sort through it, and make inferences with others who share the same goal. During this quarter, we discussed several strategy families that might influence my teaching. I believe that the social family of models of teaching as described in Models of Teaching (Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun, 2015) will help me formulate a teaching style that encourages citizenship and values as well as learning to work together in groups. Social learning can foster student wellbeing as well as academic achievement, two concepts that are linked in the classroom despite seeming to be individual.”Social learning can enhance academic learning” (Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun, 2015) and also create an environment conducive to productivity, engagement in the lesson, motivation, positive attitudes toward school, and positive interactions with peers (Dean, Hubbell, Pitler, and Stone, 2012). Forming this environment will help me to bring joy into learning, and involve all students in a positive learning experience that will serve them throughout their lives.

Social knowledge can be constructed through the use of cooperative learning and group investigation in the classroom. By allowing students to work together on lessons and projects, I will be able to introduce important concepts such as citizenship and collaboration. There is a real need for graduating students to understand the fundamentals of both of these concepts, which we should be laying the foundations for at an early age. Students need to be able to coexist and collaborate with others to succeed both in school and in the world once they have graduated, and have the skills for working in a global society. In our current system, students are reduced to a number, and it becomes difficult to educate them in a way that will be beneficial to both themselves and society. We aren’t preparing students to take an input and produce an output. In the modern industry, “we assess our workforce on knowledge, skills, and dispositions. We test them on outcomes. We assess them on critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and their ability to creatively solve problems” (Turnipseed, 2015), and I believe using the cooperative learning model will help me to teach all of these things. In order to employ this strategy and offer students an opportunity to interact with the content at a deeper level, it will require careful planning and preparation. I will not simply be able to ask students to “work together on this project”, as I have seen many teachers do. Instead, I will need to “establish a classroom culture that supports cooperative learning by being clear with students about the norms and parameters within which cooperative learning will take place” (Dean, Hubbell, Pitler, and Stone, 2012). In other words, provide opportunities for various roles that each partner may take, teach students the process for working in groups, and provide feedback on students’ social skills. By using cooperative learning, I can “lay the foundation for student success in a world that depends on collaboration and cooperation” (Dean, Hubbell, Pitler, and Stone, 2012). Major corporations want creative problem solvers who can come up with innovative, new solutions to issues, and they want them to be able to work as a team to do so (Turnipseed, 2015). John Dewey was one of the first thinkers to propose the idea of “group investigation” in a classroom (Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun, 2015). In this model, students are “organized into problem-solving groups that attack academic problems and are taught democratic procedures and scientific methods of inquiry as they proceed” (Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun, 2015). His ideas gave birth to the democratic method, in which groups of students develop a democratic social system, utilize the scientific method in scientific investigation, “use inquiry to solve a social or interpersonal problem”, and work through experience-based learning problems (Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun, 2015). Though there is much criticism and fear that this method is not as quick to teach students academically, I don’t believe it should be discounted. When I am teaching elementary students, I consider it a part of my job to prepare students to become participating members of society in a way that is more interesting to them.

Despite being in a classroom of twenty to thirty students, often children spend their school hours working on assignments independently. I do believe that independent work has its place in the classroom. However, I also believe that having students consistently working on their own can make certain aspects of my job more difficult. Personalizing education to meet the needs of each individual student can be more challenging when every student is working on their own. But “cooperative learning structures provide students with opportunities to be a viable part of a collaborative group, where they must work together with roles and deadlines as well as personalities and preferences” (Dean, Hubbell, Pitler, and Stone, 2012). By working together, they can divide up roles to suit the skills and abilities of one another. In Classroom Instruction that Works, Dean et al. (2012) describe a classroom where the teacher, Mr. Washington, engages his students in a discussion about the American Revolution and the events leading up to it. He gives students three roles to choose from; note taking, recording questions, and the reader. This gives each student in the group the opportunity to choose which role suits them best, and also lets students process their learning better as they discuss answers and notes, reflect upon their new knowledge, and listen to their peers (Dean, Hubbell, Pitler, and Stone, 2012). They are also using principles of democracy to work with each other to problem-solve or think critically about their responses. I like this example in particular because it demonstrates clearly the effectiveness of such a method, and it is also a fairly simple one to employ. In my future classroom, I believe it will be beneficial for my students to transform some boring reading and note taking activities into a creative and interesting discussion among peers. Not only will they enjoy the activity more, but they will also be doing some deeper information processing and learning that will influence both wellbeing and academic success.

To reference John Dewey (1897) once again, he believed that “the only true education comes through the stimulation of the child’s powers by the demands of the social situations in which he finds himself.” I disagree that this is the only true education, however Dewey makes an important point; when students are working in social situations, they are forced to “emerge from [their] original narrowness of action and feeling,” and realize that they belong to a group and so must act to benefit everyone (Dewey, 1897). Dean, Hubbell, Pitler, and Stone (2012) call this a “sink-or-swim-together” attitude, or positive interdependence. They develop this attitude, along with increased academic engagement and self-esteem, greater achievement, more motivation in class, and positive social attitudes, by talking through class material together and processing what they learn as a group (Dean, Hubbell, Pitler, and Stone, 2012). As an elementary teacher, this will be especially important as I form my own teaching practices, as I will be laying the foundation for lifelong learning and collaborating. My teaching should include using the classroom as a set of communities which can work amongst themselves and each other. They should also be able to reach outside their classroom to other communities within the school and the district; with the right resources, it is possible for students to collaborate with schools around the world, giving them the basis for which to form their global citizenship. When students engage with one another, they “build [their] own insight into what’s being discussed. Someone else’s understanding complements [theirs], and together [they] start to weave an informed interpretation” (Conner, 2010). I want students in my classroom to have as many opportunities to engage with one another and feel comfortable in doing so. To do this, I will need to foster a warm, welcoming environment with explicit instruction and much practice in working cooperatively.

For my students to “successfully face rigorous higher education coursework, career challenges, and a globally competitive workforce” (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2015), I will need to align my classroom environment with communication, collaboration, and citizenship. As in HOPE standard H3, it will be important for me to implement classroom and school centered instruction, including connecting instruction to communities in and out of the classroom. I hope to introduce my students to cooperative learning early on, to help develop them into “ideal citizens who could live in and enhance their society, who could fulfill themselves in and through it, and who could even be able to help create and revise it” (Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun, 2015). There is much research and support for cooperative and group learning. Albert Bandura’s (1971) social learning theory describes people learning from one another through modeling, imitation, and observation. Sir Ken Robinson (2010), social activist for creativity in schools argued that “the future for [innovation and creativity] is in a greater degree of dialogue and conversation. Collaboration isn’t just an idea for conference. It’s a key operating principle for the next phase of development in the 21st century.” As a teacher, I can choose to train my students to produce a given output, or I can choose to provide them with the tools they will need to become active, supportive members of a global community. I believe that by choosing the latter, I will not only be setting the foundation for a lifetime of collaboration and learning, I will also be providing an environment where students can find a joy in learning that stays with them throughout their lives. Albert Einstein was also known to have said that “education is what remains after one has forgotten what one learned in school.” While students may forget that the Civil War started in 1861, or the exact variables for the quadratic formula, they will remember how they learned and how they found answers. They will know that by working collaboratively, they can form deeper understanding of knowledge, and they will have the skills they need to be able to work in a team. By teaching students collaboratively, I believe I will be helping to produce the imaginative and global citizens of the future.

Sources

Bandura, A. (1971). Social learning theory. New York, NY: General Learning Press.

Connor, M. (2010). The new social learning: A guide to transforming organizations through social media. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers

Dean, C., Hubbell, E., Pitler, H., Stone, B. (2012). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Dewey, J. (1897). My pedagogic creed. The School Journal. Retrieved from https://bbweb-prod.spu.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-1025157-dt-content-rid-2034500_1/courses/EDU6526_27922201452/SIS%20Session%205%20Reading%20%28Dewey%29.pdf

Joyce, B., Weil, M., Calhoun, E. (2015). Models of teaching. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills Organization. (2015). Communication and collaboration. Retrieved from: http://www.p21.org/about-us/p21-framework/261

Robinson, K. (2011). Out of our minds: Learning to be creative. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Capstone.

Turnipseed, S. (2015 March 2). A student’s creativity is everyone’s business. P21 Blog (2)3, 1. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/news-events/p21blog/1605-a-students-creativity-is-everyones-business

Engaging in Professional Growth and Leadership

E1 – Exemplify professionally-informed, growth-centered practice. To me, this standard means that teachers are continually developing professional practices which are evaluated through feedback and personal reflection. This ties very closely with ISTE standard 5 for teachers, which states that “teachers continue to improve their professional practice, model lifelong learning, and exhibit leadership in their school and professional community by promoting and demonstrating the effective use of digital tools and resources” (ISTE, 2015). Because I feel that it is important with regards to both of these standards that I search for professional communities to participate in, my question for this standard was:

What kinds of digital learning communities can I participate in that provide a place for reflection and feedback, as well as exploration of creative applications of technology (among other topics) for improving student learning and my instructional practices?

One issue with attempting to develop growth-centered practice and lifelong learning is that teachers often don’t have the time or resources for professional development and peer evaluations. Unfortunately, “many educators work alone, with little interaction with professional colleagues or experts in the outside world” (USDE, 2010), making it difficult to grow professionally and improve teaching practices. Technology has, however, provided a wonderfully convenient solution by providing thousands of networks and communities for teachers and other professionals to participate in. These online learning communities can “break through educators’ traditional isolation, enabling them to collaborate with their peers and leverage world-class experts to improve student learning” (USDE, 2010).

globe-109274_640

Geralt, 2014. Global Networking

With this in mind, I searched through several forums to find a few learning communities that I could participate in and learn from. One such community is called Classroom 2.0, a learning community for educators who are also interested in integrating technology into their practice for a connected classroom. This community plays host to over 80,000 educators from around the world, providing a global learning network that I have chosen to be a part of. I can research topics of interest, see what is “hot” and what events are upcoming that I may be able to attend-some of which are live, some of which are online, so I can choose whichever is most convenient-and start conversations about topics or issues that come up during my classroom experiences.

Another great option for continuing learning and collaboration was shared by my learning circle member Jack Marshall. His resource, November Learning, an organization that provides a large variety of resources devoted to “implement change in schools and revolutionize teaching and learning through the application of technology” (Marshall, 2015). He also shared a list of educator hashtags for Twitter, something I found highly useful, as I plan to sign up for a Twitter account and begin participating in the educator community there. Not only will this give me yet another community to be a part of, it will help me to stay tuned in to technological trends, learn a new resource that could be valuable in the classroom, and give me a place to start searching for issues as they appear in my practice. Each community I found and joined during this module will benefit both my teaching practices and ultimately my students as I grow in my profession and continue to be a lifelong learner.

Geralt. (2014). Global Networking. Retrieved from http://pixabay.com/en/globe-network-social-networking-109274/

ISTE (2015). ISTE standards: Teachers. Retrieved from: http://www.iste.org/docs/pdfs/20-14_ISTE_Standards-T_PDF.pdf

Marshall, J. (2015 March 7). ISTE Standard 5 [post in private community]. Retrieved from https://plus.google.com/u/0/communities/111058430962704146204/stream/b10e9199-7536-4190-b7ce-f6adf9c9027e

USDE (2010). Transforming American education: Learning powered by technology. National Education Technology Plan 2010. Retrieved from https://bbweb-prod.spu.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-1022729-dt-content-rid-2032329_1/courses/EDTC6433W2015/EDTC6433_A9201451_ImportedContent_20140929075347/2010%20Manzo.pdf

Multiple Intelligence and Self-Esteem in the Classroom

P1 – Practice intentional inquiry and planning for instruction.

In planning and organizing lessons, teachers need a large repertoire of models to follow in order to ensure that instruction for each student is tailored to their learning styles. During this course, we have discussed several methods and models for teaching that can help me adapt standards-based curricula to fit the needs of my classroom. Two models in particular stood out to me; fostering self-esteem in the classroom, and Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. Both models will have an impact on how I teach, and how I will establish the learning environment in my classroom.

These concepts are very closely tied to one another, particularly with regards to student self-esteem. Students who try hard but still don’t understand something may feel that they are unintelligent, causing them to withdraw from the class and fall further behind. Although this could be due to several factors, and it’s important for teachers to be aware of as many as possible, one possibility is simply the format of instruction. Working with students to come up with a lesson plan that works well for them increases the chances that students will do better, and in turn have higher self-esteem.

Every brain is wired differently, and that can change from one moment to the next. Even acquiring “simple pieces of information physically alters the structure of our neurons” (Medina, 2014), meaning that every student may hear the same presentation in a different way. Howard Gardner (Edwards and Gardner, 2009) proposed that different kinds of minds perform, remember, learn, and understand in different ways, which was the base for his multiple intelligences theory. However, classrooms are often structured so that they teach to one type of learner, especially once students reach the university level. Criticism of Gardner’s suggestion that teachers individualize education for each student is also plentiful, as many teachers complain that it can be impossible to do so for 35-40 students. However, Gardner argues that with technology as it is, personalizing education should be much easier (Edwards and Gardner, 2009). There is software and internet resources that allow students to practice at their own level while the computer assesses their work.

Technology may not always be available to a classroom, though, and in that case, teachers should look for other resources. I am aware that my future classroom may not have the opportunity to use technology all the time, and even if that is possible, some students may not have access to it at home. This could further lead to negative self-concepts, which is something I hope to eliminate in my classroom. In order to foster a positive self-concept in my students, I won’t be able to rely on technology only as a resource. Part of creating the type of environment that encourages a positive self-concept while allowing for multiple intelligences involves giving students choices, both in the level of work they receive and in the way they wish to learn it. Strong self-concepts are heavily correlated with confidence and productive interactions (Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun, 2015), which can be attained by providing students with choices and allowing them to be active participants in their learning.

Multiple Intelligences Questionnaire

Figure 1: A possible activity for students to learn about how they learn

In my classroom, I would like to encourage my students to become involved in thinking about how they learn, both to give them confidence in their ability and to improve my own practice and help me to tailor education to my students’ specific needs. Figure 1 shows a portion of the Connell Multiple Intelligence Questionnaire for Children (Scholastic, 2015), which can be completed by students on their own. Though simple, the questionnaire can give my students and myself a general idea of how we learn, and can even be turned into a class discussion on the best way to assess and teach. Not only does this help my students become aware that they might learn differently from their peers, it also allows them to make important choices about their learning, one of the behaviors that can foster positive self-concepts (Rogers, no date).

These two models, though only a small sample at those we discussed in class, are highly important in creating a warm, nurturing, environment that every student can succeed in, regardless of background or learning style. I want my students to be able to confidently work through their learning in a way that best fits them, and I believe that employing practices with each of these theories in mind can benefit everyone. Lessons can be adapted to fit the needs of each student so that each learning style has a positive self-concept and strives for success.

Edwards, O. (Interviewer) and Gardner, H. (Interviewee). (2009). Interview with the father of multiple intelligences [interview transcript]. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/multiple-intelligences-howard-gardner-interview.

Joyce, B., Weil, M., Calhoun, E. (2015). Models of teaching. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Scholastic. (2015). Clip and save checklist: Learning activities that connect with multiple intelligences. Retrieved from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/clip-save-checklist-learning-activities-connect-multiple-intelligences

Medina, J. (2014). Brain rules: 12 principles for surviving and thriving at work, home, and school. Seattle, WA: Pear Press

Rogers, C. (no date). Teacher effects research on student self-concept. Retrieved from: https://bbwebprod.spu.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-1025182-dt-content-rid2034539_1/courses/EDU6526_27922201452/SIS%20Session%208%20Reading%20%28Rogers%29.pdf

Becoming Digital Citizens in a World of Technological Growth

Should I Type That?

Figure 1: Digital Etiquette Poster; click on the photo to be redirected to my glog

H5 – Honor student potential for roles in the greater society. This standard states that teacher candidates are preparing students to be responsible citizens for an environmentally sustainable, globally interconnected, and diverse society, meaning students should be prepared to enter the real world with enough tools to help them make informed and knowledgeable decisions. With our world growing rapidly, it is also important for students to be educated in the changing environment and technology in order to be safe and responsible. Figure 1 shows a digital poster (or glog) I created as a potential resource for a 4th or 5th grade class. This glog discusses digital etiquette, digital footprints, thinking before you hit “enter” in any kind of social media or web sharing, and internet safety. It also provides additional content for students to view and explore either on their own or with parents, including links to more information, games to practice being digital citizens, and a video. Many school districts are finding positive results of direct instruction of digital citizenship to both teachers and students. For example, in Osseo, Minnesota, the school district is teaching digital citizenship to primary students as well as secondary students and teachers. Their program is aligned with ISTE’s National Educational Technology Standards, and provides a professional development program that “equips teachers to combine collaboration, creativity, and communication to create transformative content” (Ribble and Miller, 2013). Having created this digital poster, I realize that as a teacher it is my responsibility to not only explain how to be a digital citizen, but to model being one myself. That being said, I cited sources and followed my own instructions on the poster for digital etiquette. This poster is a resource for helping students learn how to become digital citizens, preparing them for their later roles in society. In creating digital (or other) resources, it is important that I spend time thinking about how I could present it, and whether it will be useful to a classroom or not. I also learned that it’s more time-consuming than I thought to create digital media for classroom use, though once this is created it is something I could tweak and edit, and reuse. However, it is a worthwhile use of my time, as I believe students can really benefit both from reading explicitly what digital etiquette is, then having the opportunity to both see a short video and practice what they’ve learned through a game. What may be more useful than a simulated game is actual real-world practice, where students can write social media posts to each other in a safe environment, and hold discussions from other members of their community, or even the world. This can be achieved through digital communication, using Twitter or blogs in the classroom, or by using Skype. All three are viable methods for student practice.

Ribble, M., Miller, T. (2013). Educational leadership in an online world: Connecting students to technology responsibly, safely, and ethically. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, (17)1, pp 137-145.

Fostering Self-Esteem to Encourage Productivity

H1 – Honor student diversity and development. To me, this standard means teachers should be doing everything in their power to ensure that each student, regardless of background or level, feels comfortable, safe, and capable of tasks they are given. This includes using teaching models designed for increasing student self-confidence. As we learned last quarter from Marzano (2007), expectations, especially toward low-expectancy students, result in differential behavior of the teacher. Additionally, in a study by Rogers (no date), the researchers determined that “for students identified as having learning difficulties, the teacher’s level of interpersonal facilitation was the single most important contributor to the amount of gain on all outcome measures.” Because of the sensitivity students have to the expectations and beliefs of those around them, including teachers, their self-esteem could go either way based on an adult’s behavior. Teachers should foster warm and nurturing environments that encourage collaboration among teacher and students in order to boost self-esteem and create a productive classroom. According to Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun (2015), “strong self-concepts are accompanied by ‘self-actualizing’ behavior, a reaching out toward the environment with confidence that the interaction will be productive.” By showing students acceptance and empathy, and being genuine, teachers can begin to create a place where all students feel welcome. Rogers (no date) found that teachers who displayed this behavior were more likely to have quality conversations with students, have students who missed school fewer times, and made greater academic gains. He described methods of teachers relating to students in a person-to-person manner, regarding them as worthwhile human beings capable of self-direction (Rogers, no date). Empathic behaviors in teachers, like allowing students to make choices regarding their learning, more discussion with students, smiling, and using student ideas in instruction can go a long way toward increasing self-esteem in students. In one of the math classes I tutor, the teacher has the students come up with subjects or ideas for many of their practice problems, and often asks them to write the problems themselves. He has a mailbox for them to submit their story problems (with solutions on the back) and their teacher changes the numbers and gives them a bunch of these student-created problems for practice. Surprisingly (or not surprisingly), the students love having practice math problems, and are more confident, excited, and productive when they work on these.

Joyce, B., Weil, M., Calhoun, E. (2015). Models of teaching. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Marzano, R. J. (2007). The art and science of teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD

Rogers, C. (no date). Teacher effects research on student self-concept. Retrieved from: https://bbweb-prod.spu.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-1025182-dt-content-rid-2034539_1/courses/EDU6526_27922201452/SIS%20Session%208%20Reading%20%28Rogers%29.pdf